Posted: Mon Sep 28, 2009 2:00 am Post subject: Indonesian Pencak Silat Organization (IPSI)
About the Indonesian Pencak Silat Organization (IPSI) and the International Pencak Silat Federation (PERSILAT).
by O'ong Maryono www.kpsnusantara.com
What is IPSI and how it was started?
The Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia (IPSI) or Indonesian Pencak Silat Organization is a national umbrella organization for Indonesian pencak silat schools. It was funded in 1948 after Indonesia gained independence from the Dutch colonialists to foster the development of pencak silat in the new country as part of a broader effort to promote cultural unity. More exactly on May 18, 1948, a meeting found place in Solo (Central Java) which established a national pencak silat committee chaired by Mr.Wongsonegoro (chairman), and composed of Soeria Atmadja (vice chairman), Marijoen Soedirohadiprodjo (secretary), and Soeratno Sastroamidjojo (treasurer), which was eventually formalized into the Ikatan Pencak Seloeroeh Indonesia (IPSI: Association of Pencak from the Entire Indonesia). Only in 1973 the official name was changed into Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia (IPSI), to include 'pencak' as well as 'silat' schools and practitioners. Mr. Wongsonegoro was IPSI first chairman from 1948 until 1973, when it was followed by Tjokropranolo (1973-1978) and Eddie M. Nalapraya (1978 until today).
The members of IPSI are independent pencak silat perguruans spread all over the country. It is said (but official statistics are lacking) that IPSI counts more than 800 pencak silat perguruans from 26 provinces as its members.
The structure and organization of IPSI is based on a set of written statutes and rules approved by all the members, which among others define the relationship between the various perguruan and their national organization. IPSI's three main aims are:
1- To develop its members and to look after unity
2- To coordinate and lead its members dealing with its efforts to perpetuate, develop and socialize pencak silat and its values.
3- To use pencak silat and its values as means to build up good quality humankind, in a mental, spiritual and physical sense.
The Indonesian government recognizes IPSI as the only official pencak silat organization, which has the legal right to deal with all matters concerning pencak silat nationally. The national offices of IPSI are located in Jakarta, at the Padepokan Nasional Pencak Silat Indonesia, Jalan Raya Taman Mini Indonesia Indah no.1, phone 021- 8413815. From there, IPSI supervises its regional administrative units at provincial level, 2nd regional administrative units at district level, and subdistrict administrative units.
What is Persatuan Pencak Silat Indonesia (PPSI; Indonesian Pencak Silat Association )?
Many people abroad often confuse IPSI with PPSI since their names are very similar. However their nature is very different. PPSI is not recognized as a national organization by the government and its members only include West Java (Sundanese) styles, mostly located in Bandung and surroundings.
PPSI was founded by Pak Kosasih in Bandung, West Java on August 1957 with the support of various pencak silat masters such as H. Suhari Sapari (Perguron Sekar Pakuan), Nunung Hudaya (Perguron Riksa Diri), Uca (Perguron Panglipur) and Soekedja (Perguron Raksa Warga). After a period of competition with IPSI, PPSI withdraw to a local role and is today recognized as one of the 10 'Top organizations' in the history of Indonesian pencak silat. The complete list is as follows:
1. Persaudaraan Pencak Silat Setia Hati in Jakarta
2. Persaudaraan Pencak Silat Setia Hati Teratai in Madiun, East Java
3. Perpi Harimurti in Yogyakarta, Central Java
4. Pasyadja Mataram in Yogyakarta, Central Java
5. Tapak Suci Putra Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta, Central Java
6. Persaudaraan Pencak Silat Perisai Putih in Surabaya, East Java
7. Keluarga Silat Nasional Perisai Diri in Surabaya, East Java
8. Keluarga Pencak Silat Nusantara in Jakarta
9. Pencak Silat Putra Betawi in Jakarta
10. PPSI in Bandung, West Java
What is PERSILAT?
PERSILAT is the acronym of Persekutuan Pencak Silat Antar Bangsa (The International Pencak Silat Federation), the only official international organization of pencak silat. This organization was founded on March, 11, 1980 in Jakarta. PERSILAT is composed by national organizations of pencak silat. Basically every national organization of pencak silat, whether it has been already recognized or not by the respective national sport authorities, can become a member of PERSILAT as long as it is accepted by the other members. As a member of PERSILAT, each national organization represents its own country.
PERSILAT recognize 3 kinds of membership, that is Anggota Pendiri (founding members) Anggota Gabungan (associated members) and Anggota Bersekutu (affiliated members). Anggota Pendiri are the national pencak silat organizations which founded PERSILAT, namely: IPSI (Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia), PESAKA (Persekutuan Silat Kebangsaan Malaysia), PERSISI (Persekutuan Silat Singapore), and PERSIB (Persekutuan Silat Kebangsaan Brunei Darussalam)
The Anggota Gabungan are national pencak silat organizations already recognized by their respective national authorities, while the Anggota Bersekutu have still to be recognized, but are considered worthy by PERSILAT to become members.
The objectives of PERSILAT are to monitor and coordinate the efforts of perpetuating, developing and spreading pencak silat all over the wold, and to employ pencak silat to foster internationals friendship and world peace. PERSILAT can assist regional or national activities if it is asked by the concerned members. In 1994 PERSILAT counted 21 national organizations, among others: PERSISI (Singapore), PESAKA (Malaysia), IPSI (Indonesia), PERSIB (Brunei Darussalam), PSAT (Thailand), PHILSILAT (Philippines), PSAMY (Myanmar), ISAVI (Vietnam), PSAS (Spain), PSAF (France), PSVO (Austria), DPSU (Germany), PSUB (Belgium), NPSB (the Netherlands), SPSA (Suriname), PSAA(Australia), PSAT (Turkey), PSAS (Swiss), PSAE (England), PSAL (Laos), PSAMR (Marocco). More recent information is not available.
In accordance with the decision of the Anggota Pendiri, the positions of Secretary General and Department Chairpersons of PERSILAT should be occupied by functionaries from the same national organization as the president. Related to this, since from 1985 until today the president of IPSI has also been chosen as the president of PERSILAT, the head office of PERSILAT is located in Jakarta.
To avoid misunderstanding, I should state here that what I have exposed is just the formal organizational structure of IPSI and PERSILAT. A lot can still be said about the problems encountered by these two organizations in the implementation of their programs and the challenges waiting ahead.
Most of the information has been derived from:
1997 The treasury of pencak silat. Jakarta: Informedika
1999 Pencak silat merentang waktu. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar
Thank Master O'ong Maryono for his excellent writing
Last edited by Nubreed on Mon Sep 28, 2009 2:11 am; edited 1 time in total
The technical and aesthetic aspects of pencak silat discussed in previous chapters are grounded in spiritual and moral foundations. In general, pencak silat is taught to realise the noble humanistic and social ideals intrinsic to the values upheld by the local populace. Malay society considers that human beings have a place as God’s creatures, as individual creatures, as social creatures, and as universal creatures. Instruction in this philosophy of nobleness of mind and character (budi pekerti luhur) is necessary to ensure that pencak silat as an art of ‘combat’ is not misused to endanger others and disturb public order. Masters and teachers of pencak silat diligently provide religious, ethical and moral instruction to foster and develop their students’ character, behaviour and actions to manifest and reflect noble religious, individual, social and universal values. From the outset, education in budi pekerti luhur is taught alongside training in effective and artistic physical dexterity, providing the basis for performing pencak silat movements as well as for day-to-day life. By experiencing and practising the philosophy of pencak silat, students and members of a perguruan can become model human beings: self-controlled and striving to create a peaceful, prosperous and devout society.
These ideal attributes are also embodied in ‘The Indonesian Pesilat Pledge’, which, since 1986, has been an ethical code of Indonesian practitioners or vow to fulfil their obligations as citizens, fighters, and knights. As citizens, pesilat are required to show piety to God Almighty, be of noble mind and character, and uphold and put into practice the national ideology. As fighters, pesilat are obliged to love their country and their fellow citizens, and to revere fellowship and national unity and progress. Finally, as knights, pesilat must uphold truth, integrity and justice while withstanding temptation and provocation All students are required to proclaim this ethical code, usually before training begins. Some schools have adapted this pledge, detailing further the obligations and proscriptions of a pesilat according to the moral, ethical and religious teachings he embraces.
While the substance of pencak silat is abstracted and drawn from cultural values common to Indonesia as a whole, each perguruan maintains its own philosophy reflecting its own morals, etiquette, or religious teachings. Each of these philosophies has a very distinct flavour, symbolised in the name, motto, pledge and salutation of each perguruan. For example, the philosophy of Satria Muda Indonesia –expressed in a combination of Indonesian and local Minangkabau language– embodies several fundamental principles, such as :
The external silat seeks friends; the inner silat seeks God.
Maintain bonds, don’t let them break; preserve feelings, don’t let them dissipate.
Be prepared; weed before you sow.
Depend on bonds that won’t break.
Hold onto feelings that can’t dissipate.
Don’t seek out conflict; avoid confrontation. Once begun, only at the point of death does it stop.
The varied moral and ethical elements taught and instilled in both written and oral forms at pencak silat schools throughout Indonesia are classified by IPSI in the ‘mental-spiritual’ category. Although, this ‘inner’ aspect cannot be separated by the three ‘outer’ aspects of pencak silat –once more, the aspects of self-defence, sport and art–, it can be differentiated by its goal. More specifically, the mental-spiritual aspect aims to train (condition) the mental attitude of the practitioner of pencak silat so that he may become a true pesilat of noble mind and character.
To preserve and develop this essential component of pencak silat, the national pencak silat association, IPSI, supports the schools in their cultivating mental-spiritual discipline by (i) reinforcing the existing philosophy of each school; (ii) verifying that each perguruan member fully comprehends and puts into practice the national ideology; and (iii) ensuring that the etiquette, ethics and ethical codes of each school are consistently applied. If the pencak silat principle of budi perkerti luhur is found to be misused or violated, the perguruan or perhaps even IPSI will take action against the pesilat in question. For the most serious violations –in particular, violence against fellow citizens– a pesilat will be expelled from the perguruan and be prohibited from taking part in official competitions.
In this way, IPSI oversees the education of the mind and character of the pesilat and provide mental-spiritual guidance to its members. Still, not all spiritual aspirations from within the pencak silat world are accommodated by this approach. As we will see in the next, and last, article of this Rapid Journal series, the experience of pencak silat schools in Indonesia also include mystical and inner power elements IPSI chooses to overlook.
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